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SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 2016 Kode 541

Indigenous plants and animals are few in Easter Island. At the time of European arrival, the toromiro tree was the only wild tree and the Carolina wolfberry the only wild shrub, the vegetation being _31_ herbaceous. The toromiro tree was overexploited by the island wood carvers, and the last local specimen died in the 1950s. _32_ , the species was saved from extinction. The Norwegian Archaeological Expedition collected seeds and planted them in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden, and saplings from the garden were reintroduced to Easter Island in 1988. Today only 31 wild flowering plants, 14 ferns, and 14 mosses are reported. Grass and small ferns dominate the barren landscape, _33_ the boggy crater lakes are thickly covered by two imported American species, the totora reed and Polygonum acuminatum. A number of cultivated species of plants were also introduced partly from America and partly from Polynesia before the arrival of Europeans; of these the —34 species was the sweet potato, which was cultivated in extensive plantations and formed the staple diet. Bottle gourds, sugarcane, bananas, taro, yams, and two trees (i.e., the Asiatic paper mulberryand the American Triumfetta semitriloba) were of aboriginal importation, as also probably were the husk-tomato, a small variety of pineapple, and the coconut.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 31 sampai nomor 34.

31. …
(A) predominant
(B) predominated
(C) predominating
(D) predominance
(E) predominantly

32. …
(A) however
(B) moreover
(C) in contrast
(D) for example
(E) consequently

33. …
(A) so
(B) yet
(C) while
(D) hence
(E) unlike

34. …
(A) principal
(B) principle
(C) secondary
(D) mandatory
(E) inconspicuous

Although gluten has gained a bad reputation, the majority of people would struggle to explain what it actually is. The truth is that gluten is just a mixture of proteins found in the seeds of certain cereal plants, such as wheat, rye and barley. Gluten is stored in a tissue inside the seed called the endosperm, which surrounds the plant embryo and provides a dense source of energy as the plant starts to grow. In wheat, gluten is formed when the proteins glutenin and gliadin cross-link into a net-like structure that provides elasticity and viscosity.

Once food reaches the stomach it must be broken down by enzymes in the process of digestion. Large proteins are broken up into chains of amino acids called peptides. Normally these peptides are easily broken down further, but the gliadin peptides in gluten are difficult to break down as they are part of a group of peptides called rolamins. Prolamins are made up of lots of glutamine and proline amino acids, which digestive enzymes have difficulty reaking up. This means that unlike most proteins gluten digestion can leave strands of amino acids intact in the small intestine. These strands can be up to 10 amino acids long and are known as oligopeptides. For most people gliadin oligopeptides are harmless. However, a small proportion of the population will produce an Immune response known as coeliac disease, a condition caused by the body’s immune system mistakenly attacking itself. Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gluten.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 35 sampai nomor 39.

35. According to the passage, which of the following statements is FALSE?
(A) Most people are actually unsure about gluten.
(B) Coeliac disease occurs in many people.
(C) Endosperm is a food reserve tissue inside the seeds.
(D) Endosperm nourishes the developing embryo.
(E) Gliadin is a protein difficult to digest.

SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 2016 Kode 541

36. The most appropriate title for this passage is ….
(A) Gluten Sensitivity
(B) The Dangers of Gluten
(C) The Truth about Gluten
(D) Foods that Contain Gluten
(E) Gluten Sensitivity

37. This passage would probably be assigned reading in which of the following course?
(A) Nutrition
(B) Agronomy
(C) Physical Education
(D) Chemical Engineering
(E) Materials Science

38. What is the author’s purpose in writing this passage?
(A) To evaluate a gluten diet
(B) To provide the readers with facts about gluten
(C) To persuade the readers to reduce thelr gluten consumption
(D) To describe the function of gluten to the readers
(E) To reaffirm the readers’ existing belief about gluten

39. The tone of the author is best described as ….
(A) complex
(B) cautionary
(C) concerned
(D) informative
(E) instructive

Forget what world leaders say. If you want to understand what they are really up to, look at the paintings that hang behind them at press conferences and summit meetings, or when they pause with apparent spontaneity along a corridor to answer a reporter’s question. The silent stare of a poised portrait gazing at you over the shoulder of David Cameron or Vladimir Putin is often more loaded and more deliberately orchestrated than you might think.

For example, President Obama’s recent trip to Cuba in March 2016 was considered his boldest step. His controversial agenda was to reset diplomatic relations between the two nations. However, it was a painting by a Cuban artist that _42_ the show. Among the more awkward events on Obama’s Cuban itinerary was a meeting with a group of political dissidents, many of 43__ fear the thawing of relations between Washington and Havana will only embolden the repressive tendencies of Cuban president Raul Castro by legitimising his regime. Enter Michel Mirabal, a ontemporary Cuban artist whose sprawling painting My New Friend provided the striking backdrop to the meeting.

The work stretched evocatively behind Obama as he sat at a long table to discuss the concerns of the Cuban government’s detractors. It features side-by side representations of the Cuban and US flags constructed loosely of red, white, and blue handprints 44 . As a subliminal symbol capable of capturing, on the one hand the plight of those oppressed by the Cuban government, and on the other hand, Obama’s commitment to ending sanctions against Cuba, the painting _45_.The hasty blizzard of anonymous handprints has the feel of street art or something illicitly constructed: a compression of innocence that recalls the clay moulds made by children in kindergarten. At the same time, the two flags appear to be visual anagrams of each other. Each consists of the same handprints merely arranged in different combinations, as if subtly to imply that the two countries are essentially inseparable.

Gunakan Petunjuk A dalam menjawab soal nomor 40 sampai nomor 45.

40. The italic phrase in the first paragraph means ….
(A) possible gesture
(B) genuine reaction
(C) innocent impromptu
(D) seeming naturalness
(E) questionable motivation

SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 2016 Kode 541

41. The sentence “0ften these subtle messages are easy enough to decode.” should be ….
(A) the last sentence of paragraph 1
(B) the last sentence of paragraph 2
(C) the last sentence of paragraph 3
(D) the third sentence of paragraph 3
(E) the second sentence of paragraph 3

42. …
(A) was stealing
(B) had stolen
(C) has stolen
(D) steals
(E) stole

43. …
(A) whose
(B) which
(C) whom
(D) who
(E) those

44. …
(A) field pressed against a neutral grey
(B) field against a pressed neutral grey
(C) against a pressed neutral grey field
(D) pressed against a neutral grey field
(E) a neutral grey against pressed field

45. …
(A) hardly have evoked different interpretations
(B) hardly have been more cleverly chosen
(C) have been something of a signal
(D) not have been less appropriate
(E) have sent the wrong message

SIMAK UI Bahasa Inggris 2016 Kode 541

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